Packaging and storage technology of the hottest Ci

2022-10-14
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Orange packaging and storage technology (II)

packaging of domestic fruits

① preparation of packaging equipment. The packaging of domestic fruits should also emphasize: reduce consumption, keep fresh, beautiful appearance, and high commodity rate. Therefore, based on the principles of firmness, applicability, economy and beauty, the packaging equipment should be selected according to the following conditions:

A. It is firm, not easy to break, not easy to deform, and can be loaded onto boats and cars in layers

b, light raw materials, no bad smell, good air permeability

c, smooth, will not scratch or stab the fruit

d, low price, sufficient and convenient supply

② packaging technology domestic fruits can also be packed in cartons or wooden cases, and the packaging method is the same as that of export fruits. If the upper part of the bamboo basket is not full and there is a space after it is packed according to the specified weight, the space shall be tightly lined with a clean and harmless soft object to make it flush with the opening of the basket. The four sides of the basket cover are tied tightly with fine lead wires. Marks on the outside of boxes (baskets): wooden boxes and cartons should be printed on the outside, and baskets should be hung outside the basket, indicating the product name, grade, gross weight, net weight, packaging date and origin, etc., with clear, complete and correct handwriting

orange storage and fresh-keeping place

the storage and fresh-keeping of orange fruit is a means of delaying the aging of the picked fruit or the ripe fruit hanging on the tree through artificial technical measures, and maintaining its inherent quality as far as possible, so as to achieve the staggered seasons and annual supply of orange fruits

cellar storage

cellar storage of sweet orange is a common storage method used by fruit farmers in Nanchong, Sichuan Province. The method is simple and low cost. Cellar storage should not be developed in a large number of centralized ways, mainly by fruit farmers

cellar storage of sweet orange should master the following Essentials:

① cellar selection: whether it is built indoors or outdoors, the cellar must choose a place with high terrain, low groundwater level, solid soil and dry soil. Generally, sweet oranges that need to be stored for a long time (such as half a year) should be built indoors, and those stored for a short time (months) can be built outdoors

② cellar building: the "triangle bottle" type is the most common

③ preparation before fruit entering the cellar:

a, repair the cellar and change the bottom. If it is an old cellar, the cellar should be repaired and the bottom should be changed one month before entering the cellar, and the topsoil contaminated by bacteria should be removed. Methods use a small shovel to gently scrape off 1 cm thick topsoil along the base and bottom of the cellar wall, and replace it with clean new soil

b, irrigation. In order to maintain the high humidity in the cellar, before entering the cellar, according to the dry and wet conditions of the cellar, fill kg of water, and then cover it

c, disinfection. Unlike storerooms, cellars should not only be sterilized, but also be insecticidal. Generally, half a month before entering the cellar, spray the cellar with dimethoate 200 times liquid, seal it, and kill the pests in the cellar; Then spray the cellar with 1:1:100 Bordeaux solution or 0.1% carbendazim spray cloth for closed sterilization. If the cellar with Phytophthora brown rot is found, spray the cellar with 1% copper sulfate solution during disinfection

④ selection of hoard fruit: hoard fruit should be harvested in time. Cellared sweet oranges are most suitable to be harvested in mid November. They are early, poor in quality, and too late. Although they are of good quality, they have a high decay rate. The fruit stored in cellar should be strictly controlled in terms of harvest quality, and should be handled with care without injury. The rotten fruit cellar is more serious

⑤ fruits into the cellar: the fruits stored in the cellar must be carefully selected, treated with 2,4-D plus fungicide, and placed in a cool and ventilated place to dry. Count the fruits before entering the cellar. Usually, a cellar with a bottom diameter of about 230 cm can store about 3000 sweet oranges. When entering the cellar, one person squats in the cellar first, and one person passes the fruit with a fruit basket on it. The fruit is arranged in a ring along the pit wall, with the big fruit at the bottom, the small fruit at the top, and the pedicel up. The second layer is placed between the two fruits of the first layer, arranged in sequence and placed in layers. Leave a space of cm at the junction of fruits, called "pre opening", for stacking when turning fruits. An area equal to the size of the pit mouth is reserved in the center of the pit bottom for managers to stand when turning (taking) fruits. After the fruit is placed, the cellar mouth is covered with stone slabs

⑥ management after entering the cellar: the fruit should be managed by a specially assigned person after entering the cellar. At the initial stage of entering the cellar, the damaged fruit should be checked in time to reduce the rotten fruit during storage. After that, turn the fruit every other day. Before turning the fruit in the cellar, use an open fire (such as an oil lamp) to test the concentration of carbon dioxide in the cellar. If the oil lamp extinguishes the fire, it indicates that there is more carbon dioxide in the cellar. At this time, people cannot go down the cellar immediately. They should use a fan to blow into the cellar to remove carbon dioxide until the oil lamp is lit normally, otherwise suffocation will occur. Turn the cellar from the pre opening, check one by one, and take out and deal with the fruits that are not durable storage, such as brown spot fruit, moldy fruit, oil cell sunken fruit, bubble peel fruit, etc. When picking rotten fruit, you should pay attention to holding the fruit in one hand and rotten fruit in the other, so as to reduce the mutual transmission of bacteria. If Phytophthora brown rot fruit (steam fruit) is found, it is necessary to pick out the good fruit in contact with the diseased fruit around while taking out the diseased fruit, so as to control the spread of the pathogen

ventilation storehouse storage

ventilation storehouse is also called normal temperature storehouse or natural ventilation storehouse. It can be specially built, or it can be used as a ventilation reservoir after the improvement of houses or caves with suitable ordinary structures. Ventilation storage mainly uses the temperature difference between day and night and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of the storage to adjust the temperature and humidity in the storage by closing and opening the ventilation cellar, so as to keep the temperature low and stable. Ventilation storage is the most common storage place in China at present. It can store all kinds of citrus fruits, which are suitable for both producing and selling places

① the location of the reservoir should be selected according to the temperature in winter. Where the surface area of such 2-dimensional gold single crystal is more than 104 square microns in winter, the focus of fruit storage management is to reduce the temperature in the warehouse, so the warehouse should extend to the east-west direction, and there are hillside trees in the south to block the sun, and the open position in the North is suitable

the temperature in winter is below 0 ℃, and the heat preservation of the warehouse is the key, so the warehouse should extend to the north-south direction

the warehouse is required to have good heat insulation and ventilation conditions. In order to adjust the temperature in the warehouse and make its amplitude as small as possible (preferably the daily amplitude is less than 0..0 ℃)

the ventilation warehouse should be built in a place with convenient transportation, open surroundings, dry terrain, and no irritating smell factories (mines) nearby. The size of the storehouse depends on the amount of fruit stored, but it should not be too wide. It should be in meters. The length can be unlimited, and the height (ground to ceiling) is 3 5 meters. The large-scale storehouse can be divided into several small rooms, each of which is 30 square meters. In this way, the small storehouse can not only store separately according to varieties, but also maintain a relatively stable temperature and humidity, which is conducive to the storage of fruits

warehouse structure. Adopt double-layer brick walls, with a total thickness of about 70cm, leaving a 20cm air layer in the middle or filling with heat insulation materials, such as dry slag; There is a ceiling on the top of the warehouse, with 30 cm thick dry cereal grass or dry chaff shells; A buffer room is set at the entrance of the warehouse or one side of the warehouse to avoid hot air entering the storage room directly when the door is opened; The warehouse is generally equipped with double-layer doors, with the direction facing east. Another feature of the warehouse structure is that it has good ventilation facilities. There are exhaust ducts on the top of the warehouse, ventilation windows on the eaves, and air intake ducts under the ground, forming the warehouse ventilation circulation system. The direction of the underground ventilation passage is the ventilation library dominated by cooling. A physicist from Cornell University faces north to facilitate the introduction of cooler air. Install a plug-in plate damper at the air inlet to control the inlet air volume and the superheated and supercooled air entering the warehouse, which will affect the stability of the warehouse temperature. The air inlet duct of each warehouse should preferably be set under the shelves on both sides, and the air inlet on the ground should be evenly distributed. The area of air inlet can be 0 per 10 square meters of warehouse 25 square meters

② the warehouse should be disinfected, usually fumigated with sulfur, weeks before the fruit is put into storage. The consumption of sulfur powder is based on 10 grams per cubic meter of storage capacity. Since sulfur powder is not easy to ignite, a small amount of potassium chlorate can be added as combustion supporting agent. When fumigating, it can be divided into several places according to the size of the warehouse, and the doors and windows are sealed. After 24 hours of fumigation, open the doors and windows for ventilation, and close the doors for standby after there is no sulfur smell in the warehouse

there are two forms of storage of stored fruits: stacking or shelf storage

* stacking: fruit boxes or baskets can be used. The fruit can't be too full. It's better to fill 90% of the fruit, otherwise the fruit will be crushed. When stacking, both fruit boxes and fruit baskets are stacked in finished shapes. The lowest layer shall be padded with wood strips or bricks for about 10 cm, and a space of CM shall be reserved between boxes and baskets to facilitate air circulation in the pile. It is better to stack boxes or baskets high, with 0 0 meter aisle to facilitate operation

* shelf storage: install bamboo, iron and cement shelves in the warehouse. The width of the frame should be suitable for the relative operation of two people. The number of floors is variable, but the highest floor is at least 1 meter away from the ceiling to facilitate air circulation

③ the management and control of the changes of temperature and humidity in the warehouse after the fruit is put into storage is an important part of warehouse management. After the fruit is put into storage, the two ends should be grasped and the middle should be well managed

* at the initial stage of warehousing (weeks after warehousing): warehouse management should focus on cooling and moisture removal. Except in rainy and foggy days, all ventilation windows should be opened day and night. Warehouses equipped with exhaust fans should be opened at night to strengthen ventilation, so that the overall size: (L × W × H)445 × four hundred and twenty-five × The temperature and humidity in the 525mm warehouse decreased rapidly. The temperature should be controlled below 10 ℃ and the relative humidity should be kept at 85% - 90% to facilitate the healing of new wounds. At the same time, turn the fruit in time and take out the injured fruit for sale

* mid storage period: usually refers to the period from December to the next spring festival. The warehouse only needs proper ventilation. If the temperature is below zero in winter, the warehouse also needs to take cold proof measures to prevent the fruits from freezing

* later stage of storage: the warehouse management is mainly to cool down and keep the temperature as stable as possible. Through opening windows for ventilation at night, the warehouse with exhaust fans should open the exhaust fans at the same time, strengthen the ventilation, and make full use of the cold air at night to reduce the warehouse temperature. Close the doors and windows and exhaust windows before sunrise to prevent the external hot air from entering the warehouse. If the humidity in the warehouse is too low, sprinkle water on the ground to increase the humidity in the warehouse. Fruit is prone to stalk rot, anthrax and low water in the late storage period, which should be paid attention to. Stem stem is the precursor of stem rot; Dry scar is easy to turn into anthrax; Thick skinned fruits tend to wither. Therefore, in the later stage of storage, we should turn the fruit frequently, take out the dry scar fruit, dry pedicled fruit and thick skinned fruit for sale in time, so as to reduce the loss of fruit

after the storage and preservation of citrus fruits, the warehouse should be cleaned in time. Fruit boxes, fruit baskets and films should be cleaned and disinfected, and stored intensively after exposure to the sun

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