Packaging and transportation of the hottest flower

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Packaging and transportation of flower products (I)

I. packaging and transportation technology of potted flowers

with the establishment of the market economic system, the production and sales of seedlings also tend to be market-oriented. We often encounter long-distance purchase of seedlings in our work. In order to ensure the quality of purchased seedlings, our first consideration is the packaging and transportation of seedlings. Because in the process of transportation, seedlings exposed to the sun and blown by the wind for a long time will cause excessive water loss, quality decline, and even death. Therefore, minimizing the loss and evaporation of water during transportation plays a great role in ensuring the survival rate of seedlings, which requires us to pay attention to the packaging and transportation of seedlings

(I) purpose and materials of packaging

according to relevant information, one-year seedlings of Pinus tabulaeformis and Platycladus orientalis have been used for root drying. The test results show that under the sunshine of late March in North China, the one-year seedlings of Pinus tabulaeformis died in 60 minutes; The survival rate of annual seedlings of Platycladus orientalis after being exposed to the sun for 4 hours is only 3.1 ‰, and the growth of seedlings exposed to the sun is also affected. The average height of Platycladus orientalis Seedlings in the control is 39.9 cm, the average height of seedlings exposed to the sun for 1 hour is 31.3 cm, and the average height of seedlings exposed to the sun for 2 hours is 268 cm. The growth of seedlings exposed to the sun for 4 hours is abnormal. Moreover, the survival rate of spruce seedlings packed in bags for transportation is still 100% after one week. It can be seen that when seedlings are transported for a long time, they should be carefully packed. Although the monprene in ⑵ 3000 series is specially developed for the weatherstrip of doors and windows, the general packaging materials include straw bags, cattail bags, polyethylene bags, asphalt waterproof gunny bags and paper bags, container boxes, etc

(II) packaging method

packaging machine or manual packaging can be used. For large seedlings such as deciduous broad-leaved trees, most of them have bare root seedlings. When packaging, first put the wet thing on the packaging material, then put the seedling root to root on it, and add some wet things between the roots, such as moss, wet straw, wet wheat straw, etc; Or dip the roots of seedlings with mud. In this way, put the seedlings to the appropriate weight, roll the seedlings into bundles and tie them with ropes. The same method can be used for small naked seedlings. However, conifers and most evergreen broad-leaved trees have large transpiration due to a large number of branches and leaves, and more root systems are damaged during seedling emergence. After seedling emergence and the initial stage of colonization, seedlings are easy to lose their water balance and die. Therefore, the big seedlings of such trees are required to bring soil balls when they are raised. In order to prevent the soil balls from breaking up and reducing the water loss of the root system, plastic films, cattail bags, straw bags and straw ropes should be used immediately after the soil balls are dug out; Or use wooden cases, and sometimes use wooden cases for the packaging of precious tree species with special needs. When packing, be sure to attach a label on the outside, indicating the seedling age, number, grade, nursery name, etc. of the tree species on the label

(III) transportation of seedlings

the urban traffic situation is complex, and the seedlings are often too high, too long and too wide. Necessary procedures should be handled in advance; The escort personnel shall cooperate with the driver during the transportation to ensure the smooth driving as far as possible. It is advocated to be fast and timely during the transportation of seedlings. During the short-distance transportation of seedlings, it is not allowed to stop for rest, but to be transported to the construction site. For long-distance seedling transportation, the root of the tree should be watered frequently, and the midway stop should be in a shady place. In case of loose brake rope, loose tarpaulin, tree tops dragging the ground, etc., the vehicle should be stopped in time for treatment

(IV) loading methods and requirements for bare root seedlings

loading should not be too high and heavy, and should not be too tight, so as to avoid crushing branches and roots; The treetops are not allowed to drag the ground. If necessary, they should be hung up with ropes. The part where the rope contacts the tree body should be padded with cattail bags to prevent damage to the dry skin. Straw bags, cattail bags and other objects shall be paved on the trunk board of the truck to avoid scratching the bark and damaging the roots. The bare root trees shall be placed with the roots facing forward and the treetops facing back in order. For long-distance seedling transportation, it is best to cover and bundle the roots with tarpaulin, so as to reduce the water loss of roots

(V) loading methods and requirements for seedlings with soil balls

seedlings below 2 meters (tree height) can be loaded vertically. Seedlings above 2 meters high should be placed obliquely or completely with the soil balls facing forward, the tree tops facing back, and stand a support to stabilize the crown, so as to prevent the crown from rocking and causing loose lumps when driving. The size of the soil ball is large, and the seedlings with a diameter of more than 60 cm can only be yard 1 layer; Small earth balls can be stacked for 2 to 3 layers. The earth balls should be tightly stacked, and wood blocks and bricks should be used to support the cushion to prevent the earth balls from shaking. No one is allowed to stand or put heavy objects on the earth ball to prevent crushing the earth ball

(VI) transportation mode

domestic flower transportation usually includes air transportation, road transportation, railway transportation, etc. The freight of air transportation is high, but due to the short transportation time, the product quality is basically not affected. However, the domestic air transportation service quality is not high at present. Potted flowers are fresh products. The staff habitually load and unload potted flowers as fresh cut flowers, and do not pay attention to the sign that cannot be inverted, which greatly increases the chance of potted flowers being damaged, and the claim procedures are more troublesome, all of which greatly weaken the competitiveness of air transportation. At present, road transportation is the most popular way to transport potted flowers. The freight is only 1/3 to 1/4 of that of air transportation, and the damage of loading and unloading can be minimized. However, the transportation time is generally long, and the long-term high or low temperature conditions during the transportation are easy to cause serious transportation damage to flowers and trees. Therefore, the transportation in winter must adopt the heat preservation vehicle or heating vehicle. The price of the heat preservation car is 1/3 higher than that of the general semi enclosed car, and the price of the heating car is more than half higher than that of the semi enclosed car. In the south of the Yangtze River, it is generally OK to use a heat preservation car, while in the north of the Yangtze River, we should try to use a heating car. The price of railway transportation is about 1/4 to 1/5 of that of air transportation. The freight is cheap, but the cargo volume requirements are relatively large, and the loading and unloading damage is also large. Reducing the basin diameter, controlling the height and using light substrate are the most effective methods to reduce the transportation weight and volume, so as to save the transportation cost

(VII) precautions during storage and transportation

if it is a short-distance transportation, the seedlings can be scattered in the basket, put a layer of moisture on the bottom of the basket, fill the basket, and finally cover the seedlings with a layer of moisture. In order to prevent the seedling root from losing water, if it is transported for a long distance, the bare root seedling root must be dipped in mud, and the seedling with soil ball must be sprayed on the branches and leaves. Cover the seedlings with wet tarpaulin

in the process of storage and transportation, the life activities and aging of flowers have not stopped, resulting in some changes in the process of storage and transportation. During transportation, try to keep the plants in a cold environment and keep the temperature stable, so that the plants will always be in a "cold chain" environment after harvest. At the same time, attention should be paid to maintaining air circulation and ventilation. The growing potted plants of a large number of leading enterprises and leaders are often transported by open trucks. At present, the latest transportation method is bare root transportation. Because the transportation medium and container are removed, the transportation cost is greatly reduced, and the transportation space and weight can be reduced by more than 50%. This transportation method is also used for plants produced by hydroponics to meet the health requirements specified by some countries and prevent the transmission of soil borne pathogens

ethylene produced during storage and transportation will also induce the abscission of flower buds and leaves, and increase flower deformity. The harm of ethylene depends on its concentration, exposure period and temperature. The drop of transportation temperature (above the freezing injury point) can reduce the shedding of leaves and flowers. Therefore, before long-term transportation. 3. Finally, check whether the setting of the tensile testing machine system is normal. Treating plants with ethylene activity inhibitors (STS or 1-MCP) can reduce the harm of ethylene. For some plants, NAA treatment can also reduce the shedding of various plant organs. Fully open flowers are more sensitive to ethylene than flowers in the bud stage. Therefore, the transportation of potted plants watching flowers in the bud stage is very important. Only when the products are near the optimal storage temperature, they can be put together, and their adverse interactions should be prevented, such as the release of ethylene, odor and different requirements for relative humidity during storage. The most economical and optimal transportation method should be considered during transportation. For long-term transportation, the main problems encountered are: fading and falling of leaves and flowers, inability of flower buds to open, ground bending, rapid development and spread of diseases, etc

◎ take the following modern Poinsettia potted flower packaging and transportation as an example to illustrate.

the packaging of modern Poinsettia includes product name and trademark, logo, transportation packaging box and special bag. The combination of product name, trademark and logo forms a brand, which is the identification of the manufacturer to the seller and direct users, and is a synonym for product quality. At the same time, good packaging can reduce damage during transportation, so that products can still maintain good quality after transportation. Classification and test methods of fire performance of good surface coating fire retardant coatings gb/t 15442.2 – 1995 large plate combustion method can expand the scope of sales, otherwise it can only be sold locally

1. The packaging of Poinsettia

the packaging of Poinsettia includes transportation packaging boxes, special bags and pallets. Product standardization is the premise of brand packaging

because the specification of the packing box is unchanged, the height and crown width should be unified so that the transportation cost will not increase due to the waste of space

the cardboard of packing box specification should have enough hardness to resist bumps and compression. The net height of the packing box should be the height of the plant with the basin plus 4 to 6 cm. The length and width of the inner box are calculated by the multiple of the basin diameter, but the size and weight that can be easily handled by one person are appropriate. Because the crown width of poinsettia is large, and the bracts are easy to be damaged, it is recommended that the side opening of the packing box is better

the special bag for Poinsettia should be made of soft wrapping paper or plastic. The diameter is 3 to 4 cm larger than the basin diameter, and the length should be 3 to 5 cm higher than the plant leaves and bracts

design method of the card board. The function of the card board is to fix the flowerpot. There are feet on both sides of the card board. The height of the feet should be 3 to 4 cm away from the mouth of the pot. The diameter of the card hole of each pot in the card board should be about 0.5cm smaller than the diameter of the flowerpot at the height of the card board

2. Transportation mode

highway transportation and railway transportation are generally used

3. Transportation requirements

the temperature is most suitable from 12 ℃ to 18 ℃, and more than 18 ℃ will aggravate the drooping phenomenon of leaf bracts. If it is transported at 2 ℃ to 10 ℃ for a long time, cold damage will occur, including symptoms such as leaf bracts wilting, leaf falling, and blue bracts

generally, the water should be soaked one day before loading. Bagging and packing when the soil is moderately wet

do not apply fertilizer before transportation to prevent root burns and leaf bracts

loading requires that the gap between the packing box and the carriage should be as small as possible. Places with large gaps should be plugged with foam or other materials as much as possible

after arrival, the package must be removed immediately, and the plants must be placed in a bright environment between 18 ℃ and 23 ℃. The longer the poinsettia is in the bag, the more time it takes to recover. If it takes too long, it cannot be recovered. Therefore, the transportation time should be as short as possible, preferably no more than 3 days

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